Oocyte (Egg) donation
Oocyte or egg donation is one of the types of assisted reproductive technique (ART). It is basically a scenario where a woman donates her eggs to another woman for her to be able to conceive. Or, the technique is adopted in cases of poor quality or quantity of the oocyte or the egg. This could be due to premature or age-related ovarian failure, as mentioned, poor ovarian reserve (due to advanced age or disease), implantation failure, or recurrent abortions. Sometimes, egg donations is carried out to prevent genetic disorders. With more women delaying motherhood, the necessity of egg donation has increased.
Egg donation is used in combination with IVF for better results. Results are also good when the donor whose eggs are being utilized is below the age of 35 years, as it is believed to result in higher pregnancy and implantation rates. Egg donation can also be utilized in various ways – fresh embryo transfer, frozen oocytes, frozen embryo transfer, autologous oocytes, etc. Oocyte donation also works wonders along with GIFT, ZIFT, TEST, and others.
How is it done?
As a procedure carried out in conjunction with IVF, the steps of pre-IVF apply to egg donation as well.
The most important part of the treatment is the counseling of the couple in accepting the treatment method and finding a suitable donor
Tests are carried out to establish that the donor and the recipient do not have a physically contradicting environment for the pregnancy to survive. Tests are conducted to clear for any infectious diseases such as HIV, human T-cell leukemia, hepatitis, syphilis, etc
The recipient’s uterine cavity is also evaluated to steer clear of any abnormalities. The male partner’s sperm conditions are also subjected to a test with a semen analysis.
Controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation is carried out to increase the production of mature oocytes or eggs. This ensures enough supply at the time of retrieval
Regular steps of IVF procedure are then done – Egg retrieval, sperm insemination, ICSI if required, and finally fertilization. Once the embryo develops, it is transferred for implantation to occur. The only exception, in this case, is the fact that the transfer is done to the recipient.