Artificial insemination using donor sperm has been practiced for over a century, although the first published reports about the practice were in 1945.Over the past 10 years, the use of donor sperm has decreased as the use of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection ( ICSI) for treatment of male infertility has become widespread. Since the late 1980s with the emergence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS ) ,artificial donor insemination has been performed exclusively with frozen and quarantined sperm. Current ICMR guidelines recommend that sperm be quarantined for at least six months before being released for use.
Indications of Sperm Donation
Currently, therapeutic – donor insemination (DI or TDI) is appropriate when the male partner has severe abnormalities in the semen parameters and/or reproductive system. These abnormalities include both obstructive (caused by a blockage of the ejaculatory ducts) and non -obstructive (due to testicular failure) azoospermia ( absence of sperm ),which may be congenital or acquired. Examples of obstructive azoospermia include congenital absence of the vas deferens or previous vasectomy. Examples of non-obstructive azoospermia include primary testicular failure or secondary testicular failure due to previous radiation treatment or chemotherapy. Severe oligospermia (decreased sperm count ) or other significant sperm or seminal fluid abnormalities also are indications for DI.DI also indicated if the male has ejaculatory dysfunction or if he is a carrier or affected with a significant genetic defect and would prefer not to pass this gene on to his children. DI may be used if the female is Rh-sensitized and the male partner is Rh-positive .